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The performance of the textile and garment industry in 2016: Exports fell 1.9% while domestic garment consumption rose 2.2%.


	
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Maintaining the Spirit of Local Textiles PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 26 June 2017

Like it or not, the textile and textile products (TPT) industry is still the backbone of the Indonesian economy. The labor-intensive industry is able to absorb more than 1.1 million workers.

 

In addition, the industry contributed 1.2% to Indonesia's gross domestic product (GDP) last year. Furthermore, the industry is also able to contribute 8.2% of Indonesia's total export revenue in the same period.

 

No wonder the government has set the textile industry or TPT as one of national strategic industries. Seeing this predicate, would be interesting to see the fate of the industry in recent years.

 

Apparently, the growth of the textile industry has contracted since 2014. In fact, in 2015 was the worst period of the textile industry which recorded negative growth of -4.8% and still continues in 2016 which is still in negative growth zone (-0.1%).

 

The latest data from Q1-2017 shows that TPT industry growth has been positive although still very small at 0.03%. Looking at these results, is this a sign of the textile industry starting to rise from adversity?

 

One of the things to note is that about 70% of domestic textile sales are on the export market, especially the United States (US) and the European Union. The sluggish local textile market in 2015 due to a decrease in demand in the main market of Indonesian textiles.

 

This worsened demand for exports of domestic textile products began to shift to competing countries such as Vietnam and Bangladesh. Luckily, the global economy that began to stretch this year to be a positive catalyst for the domestic textile industry.

 

Moreover, the decision of the United States to withdraw from the membership of Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) so fresh air for the Indonesian textile industry. Because there are no more TPT exporters to the US that have the advantage of cheaper export tariffs than non-TPP countries like Indonesia.

 

Because, the domestic textile industry lost the war with imported textile products. The price of imported garment products is more skewed to make this product more attractive to local consumers. This is also exacerbated by the invasion of illegal imported clothing products either in new or used conditions.

 

However, when examined the issue of the domestic textile industry is not solely from the market side. From the production side there are also obstacles.

 

There are still many local textile industries that use obsolete textile production technology. The disadvantage, the energy cost of the technology used is large and this makes the production of textile TPT, especially inefficient.

 

As for the garment industry, labor wages continue to rise to become the largest cost component for local downstream TPT industry.

 

Yet when viewed from the structure of exports and imports, local textile industry is actually quite ideal as a processing industry base. Because the majority of imports of this industry comes from mangrove and exports precisely in the form of apparel.

 

This means that the industry is able to provide added value not just the export of raw commodities. It's just that the supply of raw materials that are met through imports also also provide its own risks, especially related to the availability and fluctuations in the exchange rate.

 

We ourselves see the performance of the textile industry and domestic textile products this year could be better than last year. The perpetrators of the textile industry in the country would have anticipated the problems that have occurred by applying how many strategies. For example looking for production sites with cheap labor costs. In addition, this industry should also be able to extend the cycle as textile and textile products industries. Such as developing global product design and quality. Can also reproduce the brand of garment products. And began to expand the product as to the Muslim fashion. When this is done, the domestic textile industry is no longer merely a tailor.

 

The government also needs to minimize the entrance of illegal products by setting a special port for TPT imports. Can also through centralization of textile production centers in areas with low wages as in the Central Java region. But keep in mind, concentration of special production centers that can trigger wage demands better in the long term.

 

 

Menjaga Semangat Tekstil Lokal

 

 

Suka atau tidak, industri tekstil dan produk tekstil (TPT) masih menjadi tulang punggung perekonomian Indonesia. Industri padat karya sanggup menyerap lebih dari 1,1 juta pekerja.

 

Selain itu industri ini berkontribusi 1,2% bagi produk domestik bruto (PDB) Indonesia tahun lalu. Lebih jauh lagi, industri itu juga sanggup memberi kontribusi 8,2% dari total penerimaan ekspor Indonesia di periode serupa.

 

Tak heran bila pemerintah sudah menetapkan industri tekstil atau TPT sebagai salah satu industri strategis nasional. Melihat predikat ini, tentu menarik bila melihat nasib industri tersebut dalam beberapa tahun terakhir.

 

Rupanya, pertumbuhan industri tekstil mengalami  kontraksi sejak tahun 2014. Malah, pada 2015 merupakan periode terburuk industri tekstil yang mencatat pertumbuhan negatif -4,8% dan masih berlanjut di tahun 2016 yang masih dalam zona pertumbuhan negatif (-0,1%).

 

Data terbaru kuartal 1-2017 menunjukkan pertumbuhan industri TPT sudah positif meskipun masih sangat kecil yaitu 0,03%. Melihat hasil ini, apakah ini pertanda industri tekstil mulai bangkit dari keterpurukan?

 

Salah satu hal yang perlu diperhatikan adalah bahwa sekitar 70% penjualan tekstil domestik tertuju ke pasar ekspor, khususnya Amerika Serikat (AS) dan Uni Eropa. Lesunya pasar tekstil lokal di 2015 lantaran terjadi penurunan permintaan di pasar utama tekstil Indonesia.

 

Ini diperparah permintaan ekspor produk tekstil domestik mulai beralih ke negara pesaing seperti Vietnam dan Bangladesh. Beruntung, ekonomi global yang mulai menggeliat tahun ini jadi katalis positif bagi industri tekstil dalam negeri.

 

Terlebih, keputusan Amerika Serikat yang mundur dari  keanggotaan Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) jadi angin segar bagi industri TPT Indonesia. Sebab tidak ada lagi eksportir TPT ke AS yang punya keunggulan tarif ekspor yang lebih murah ketimbang negara yang bukan anggota TPP seperti Indonesia.

 

Sebab, industri tekstil domestik kalah perang dengan produk tekstil impor. Harga produk garmen impor yang  lebih miring membut produk ini lebih diminati konsumen lokal. Ini juga diperparah dengan serbuan produk pakaian impor ilegal baik dalam kondisi baru atau bekas.

 

Namun, bila dikaji persoalan industri tekstil dalam negeri tidak semata-mata dari sisi pasar saja. Dari sisi produksi juga ada kendala.

 

Masih banyak industri tekstil lokal yang menggunakan teknologi produksi tekstil yang sudah usang. Kelemahannya, biaya energi dari teknologi yang dipakai itu tergolong besar dan ini membuat produksi TPT terutama tekstil menjadi tidak efisien.

 

Sedangkan bagi industri garmen, upah buruh yang terus melonjak menjadi komponen biaya terbesar bagi industri hilir TPT lokal.

 

Padahal bila dilihat dari struktur ekspor dan impor, industri tekstil lokal sebenarnya sudah cukup ideal sebagai sebuah basis industri pengolahan. Sebab mayoritas impor industri ini berasal dari bahan bakau dan ekspor justru berupa pakaian jadi.

 

Artinya industri mampu memberikan nilai tambah tidak sekedar ekspor komoditas mentah belaka. Hanya saja pasokan bahan baku yang dipenuhi melalui impor tersebut juga turut memberikan risiko tersendiri, khususnya terkait ketersediaan dan fluktuasi nilai tukar.

 

Kami sendiri melihat kinerja industri tekstil dan produk tekstil domestik pada tahun ini bisa lebih baik dari tahun lalu. Para pelaku industri tekstil di dalam negeri tentu sudah mengantisipasi persoalan yang sudah terjadi dengan menerapkan berapa strategi. Misalnya mencari lokasi produksi dengan upah buruh yang murah. Selain itu industri ini juga harus bisa memperpanjang siklus sebagai industri tekstil dan produk tekstil. Seperti mengembangkan desain produk dan kualitas berskala global. Bisa juga memperbanyak merek produk garmen. Serta mulai memperluas produk seperti ke busana muslim. Bila ini dilakukan, industri tekstil domestik tidak lagi sekedar sebagai tukang jahit semata.

 

Pemerintah juga perlu memperkecil celah masuk produk ilegal dengan menetapkan pelabuhan khusus impor TPT. Bisa juga lewat pemusatan sentra produksi tekstil di daerah dengan upah murah seperti di daerah  Jawa Tengah. Tapi perlu diingat, pemusatan sentra produksi khusus itu bisa memicu  tuntutan upah lebih baik dalam jangka panjang.    

 

 
		

		
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