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Home arrow Latest News arrow Payment Mechanisms Related to Textile Industry


				
			
			
Payment Mechanisms Related to Textile Industry PDF Print E-mail
Written by Maizer   
Thursday, 25 August 2016
Asian tiger countries such as South Korea and Taiwan to build the payment system rapidly when they are still dependent on the industrialization of the textile industry. In Indonesia a similar trend also occurred. When the crisis hit the economy, including the textile industry, the payment system also collapsed.

 

The crisis greatly affects the exporting company, also in labor intensive sectors such as textiles and footwear, and in transport equipment and machinery and basic metals industries. Only the food industry, beverages, tobacco and managed to overcome the crisis.

 

Much research has been done to explain the inability of the economy (including manufacturing) to withstand the crisis. The main reason, seems to lie in the financial sector difficulties. These difficulties are the result of institutional problems, namely asset price bubbles and poor regulation contribute to the engorgement of lending criteria and unwise investments by companies that borrow.

 

Consequently, many companies are not able to pay most of the loan funds. Financial institutions also were then faced with the need to address the large number of non-performing loan (NPL). In turn, this problem is compounded by the large external debt that forced the government to seek assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

 

The financial sector's difficulties were to blame for the low level of private investment. During the period of economic boom (1988-1996) when the economy to grow between 5.81% (1988) and 8.52% (1996) per year, fixed investment accounted for 26-30% of nominal GDP and 26-31% of real GDP.

 

However, since 1998, due to financial difficulties and a lack of confidence among investors to buy fixed assets, the ratio of fixed investment has dropped to 20-22% of nominal GDP and 20-23% of real GDP during 1999 to 2003 (World Bank, 2005) ,

 

Textile manufacturing is one of the major industry types. Textile manufacturing is based on the change of the fiber into yarn, then into fabric, until eventually into textiles. Textiles was later made into clothing or other objects. Cotton is the most important natural fabrics.

 

The process by means of weaving, fabric formation, settlement, and coloring. Hassle processes are capable of producing a wide range of products. History shows that the industrial revolution was also closely associated with the development of the textile industry.

 

The industrial revolution began in late 18th century by a shift in the use of labor in the UK who previously used animal and human power was later replaced by the use of machine-based manufacturing. Initial period began with the mechanization of the textile industry is done, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of coal.

 

Expansion of trade co-developed with the construction of the canal, repairing highways, and railroads. Their transition from agriculture-based economy to a manufacturing-based economy that led to a massive displacement of population from rural to urban areas and eventually cause bulging populations in major cities in the UK.

 

Beginning of the Industrial Revolution is not clear, but the TS Ashton wrote about 1760- 1830. No breakpoints with the Industrial Revolution II around 1850, when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships, rail, and then at the end of the century development of the internal combustion engine and power plant development.

 

Factors underlying occurred Industrial Revolution is a new scientific revolution in the 16th century. At that time, scientists have a crucial role as Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Galileo Galilei. In addition, research development and research is growing rapidly with the establishment of research institutes such as The Royal Improving Knowledge, The Royal Society of England, and the French Academy of Science.

 

There are also factors such as the resilience of the domestic politics, the development of entrepreneurial activity, the vast British colony and rich in natural resources. With no industrial revolution that develops the textile industry for the first time has made London the center of the payment system in the world that can not be rivaled by any other European country.

 

With reference to the development of London as the center of world payments system and its relationship with the development of the textile industry, Indonesia needs to take lessons from him. It is important for Indonesia to not underestimate the development of the textile industry-besides of course also pay attention to other industries are also growing-if it is to be part of the payment system the best in the world.

 

 

Mekanisme Pembayaran Terkait Industri Tekstil

 

 

Negara macan Asia seperti Korea Selatan dan Taiwan membangun sistem pembayarannya secara pesat ketika industrialisasi mereka masih bergantung pada industri tekstil. Di Indonesia tren yang sama juga terjadi. Ketika krisis menghantam perekonomian termasuk industri tekstil, sistem pembayaran juga kolaps.

 

Krisis sangat memengaruhi ekspor perusahaan manufaktur, juga di sektor padat karya seperti tekstil dan alas kaki, dan dalam peralatan transportasi dan permesinan serta industri logam dasar. Hanya industri makanan, minuman, dan tembakau yang berhasil mengatasi krisis.

 

Banyak penelitian yang telah dilakukan untuk menjelaskan ketidakmampuan ekonomi (termasuk sektor manufaktur) untuk bertahan menghadapi krisis. Alasan utamanya, tampaknya terletak pada kesulitan sektor keuangan. Kesulitan-kesulitan ini hasil dari masalah kelembagaan, yaitu gelembung harga aset dan buruknya peraturan yang memberikan kontribusi pada kendurnya kriteria pinjaman dan investasi yang tidak bijaksana oleh perusahaan yang meminjam.

 

Konsekuensinya, banyak perusahaan yang tidak bisa membayar sebagian besar dari dana pinjaman. Lembaga keuangan juga kemudian dihadapkan dengan kebutuhan untuk mengatasi sejumlah besar non-performing loan (NPL). Pada gilirannya, masalah ini diperparah oleh utang eksternal besar yang memaksa pemerintah untuk mencari bantuan dari Dana Moneter Internasional (IMF).

 

Kesulitan sektor keuangan ini yang harus disalahkan atas rendahnya tingkat investasi swasta. Selama periode ledakan ekonomi (1988-1996) ketika ekonomi tumbuh antara 5,81% (1988) dan 8,52% (1996) per tahun, investasi tetap menyumbang 26-30% dari PDB nominal dan 26-31% dari GDP riil.

 

Namun, sejak 1998, karena kesulitan keuangan dan kurangnya kepercayaan di kalangan investor untuk membeli aset tetap, rasio investasi tetap telah turun menjadi 20-22% dari PDB nominal dan 20-23% dari GDP riil selama 1999 hingga 2003 (Bank Dunia, 2005).

 

Manufaktur tekstil adalah satu di antara jenis industri besar. Manufaktur tekstil didasarkan pada perubahan dari serat menjadi benang, kemudian menjadi kain, sampai akhirnya menjadi tekstil. Tekstil itu kemudian dibuat menjadi pakaian atau benda-benda lain. Kapas merupakan kain alami yang paling penting.

 

Prosesnya dengan cara menenun, pembentukan kain, penyelesaian, dan pewarnaan. Kerumitan proses-proses tersebut mampu menghasilkan berbagai macam produk. Sejarah memperlihatkan bahwa revolusi industri juga berkaitan erat dengan perkembangan industri tekstil.

 

Revolusi industri dimulai akhir abad ke-18 dengan terjadi peralihan dalam penggunaan tenaga kerja di Inggris yang sebelumnya menggunakan tenaga hewan dan manusia kemudian digantikan oleh penggunaan mesin yang berbasis manufaktur. Periode awal dimulai dengan dilakukan mekanisasi terhadap industri tekstil, pengembangan teknik pembuatan besi, dan peningkatan penggunaan batu bara.

 

Ekspansi perdagangan turut dikembangkan dengan dibangunnya terusan, perbaikan jalan raya, dan rel kereta api. Adanya peralihan dari perekonomian yang berbasis pertanian ke perekonomian yang berbasis manufaktur menyebabkan terjadi perpindahan penduduk besar-besaran dari desa ke kota dan akhirnya menyebabkan membengkaknya populasi di kota-kota besar di Inggris.

 

Awal mula Revolusi Industri tidak jelas, tetapi T S Ashton menulisnya kira-kira 1760- 1830. Tidak ada titik pemisah dengan Revolusi Industri II sekitar 1850, ketika kemajuan teknologi dan ekonomi mendapatkan momentum dengan perkembangan kapal tenaga uap, rel, dan kemudian pada akhir abad tersebut perkembangan mesin pembakaran dalam dan perkembangan pembangkit tenaga listrik.

 

Faktor yang melatarbelakangi terjadi Revolusi Industri adalah terjadi revolusi ilmu pengetahuan pada abad ke-16. Saat itu kalangan ilmuwan memiliki peran penting seperti Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Galileo Galilei. Selain itu, pengembangan riset dan penelitian tumbuh pesat dengan pendirian lembaga riset seperti The Royal Improving Knowledge, The Royal Society of England, dan The French Academy of Science.

 

Ada pula faktor dari dalam seperti ketahanan politik dalam negeri, perkembangan kegiatan wiraswasta, jajahan Inggris yang luas dan kaya akan sumber daya alam. Dengan ada Revolusi Industri yang mengembangkan industri tekstil untuk pertama kalinya telah menjadikan London sebagai pusat sistem pembayaran di dunia yang tak dapat disaingi oleh negara Eropa lain.

 

Dengan mengacu pada perkembangan London sebagai pusat sistem pembayaran dunia dan hubungannya dengan perkembangan industri tekstil, Indonesia perlu mengambil pelajaran darinya. Penting bagi Indonesia untuk tidak menganggap remeh perkembangan industri tekstil–selain tentu saja juga memperhatikan industri lain yang juga berkembang–jika ingin menjadi bagian sistem pembayaran terbaik di dunia.

 
		
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