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Home arrow Latest News arrow US protectionism is not Affect to Exports Textiles Indonesia

US protectionism is not Affect to Exports Textiles Indonesia PDF Print E-mail
Written by Maizer   
Tuesday, 24 January 2017

Executive Director of the Center of Reform on Economics (CORE) Mohammad Faisal said Indonesia's trade policy United States (US) President Donald Trump era is likely to become increasingly protective will not really affect Indonesian exports, particularly textiles, to the country.


Faisal explained all this time the US has become a major trading partner of Indonesia with a total value of trade reached USD 19.27 billion from January to October 2016. "However, the main export products of Indonesia to the United States, in addition to a competitive commodity-based products such as rubber, shrimp, and furniture, also a labor-intensive manufacturing products that rely on cheap labor, such as textiles and textile products and footwear, "he said quoted by Antara on Sunday (22/01/2017).


Contributions textiles, textile products and footwear covers 31 percent of the total Indonesian exports to the US. Faisal added with relatively high wage levels, the US opportunities to build labor-intensive manufacturing industry is still very little competitive.


"Thus, the US is expected to keep importing textile products, apparel, and footwear from countries that wage labor cost, such as Vietnam and Indonesia," he said.


Meanwhile, Faisal revealed the very thing to worry about is the market share of Indonesian exports for these products are increasingly unmatched by similar products from other countries that have lower wage levels, such as Vietnam and Bangladesh.


In addition, manufacturing products from Indonesia at this time is already quite high tariffs in the US (the average most favored nation rates above 10 percent).


This rate is much higher than the rates charged on manufactured products imported from Mexico are generally nearly zero percent, because of the free trade agreement between the countries of the North American Free Trade Agreement (North American Free Trade Agreement / NAFTA).


Faisal said the possibility of the imposition of higher tariffs on manufactured products from Indonesia is smaller compared to products from countries that obtain lower rates or were released, such as Mexico.


"However, some Indonesian export products which have import substitution in the US such as palm oil, should be wary of his chances to apply restrictive policies, especially in the form of non-tariff barriers. Because the non-tariff barriers in the US thus many and varied, "he said.


Based on the report of the WTO, this time various types of non-tariff barriers imposed AS amounted to 4780, far more than Indonesia which amounted to only 272.


Protektionisme AS tak Pengaruhi Ekspor Tekstil Indonesia



Direktur Eksekutif Center of Reform on Economics (CORE) Indonesia Mohammad Faisal menyebutkan kebijakan perdagangan Amerika Serikat (AS) era Presiden Donald Trump yang berpeluang menjadi semakin protektif tidak akan terlalu memengaruhi kinerja ekspor Indonesia, terutama tekstil, ke negara itu.


Faisal menjelaskan selama ini AS memang menjadi mitra dagang utama Indonesia dengan nilai total perdagangan mencapai USD 19,27 miliar sepanjang Januari hingga Oktober 2016. “Akan tetapi, produk-produk ekspor andalan Indonesia ke AS, selain merupakan produk berbasis komoditas yang kompetitif seperti karet, udang, dan furnitur, juga merupakan produk manufaktur padat karya yang mengandalkan upah buruh murah, seperti tekstil dan produk tekstil serta alas kaki,” ucap dia dikutip dari Antara, Minggu (22/1/2017). 


Kontribusi tekstil, produk tekstil, dan alas kaki mencakup 31 persen dari total ekspor Indonesia ke AS. Faisal menambahkan dengan tingkat upah yang relatif tinggi, peluang AS untuk membangun industri manufaktur padat karya yang kompetitif masih sangat kecil.


“Dengan demikian, AS diperkirakan akan tetap mengimpor produk-produk tekstil, pakaian jadi, dan alas kaki dari negara-negara yang berupah buruh murah, seperti Vietnam dan Indonesia,” kata dia.


Sementara itu, Faisal mengungkapkan hal yang justru perlu dikhawatirkan adalah pangsa pasar ekspor Indonesia untuk produk-produk tersebut yang semakin tersaingi oleh produk-produk serupa dari negara-negara lain yang memiliki tingkat upah lebih rendah, seperti Vietnam dan Bangladesh.


Selain itu, produk-produk manufaktur dari Indonesia saat ini sebenarnya sudah dikenakan tarif yang cukup tinggi di AS (rata-rata tarif most favored nation di atas 10 persen).


Tarif ini jauh lebih tinggi dibandingkan tarif yang dikenakan terhadap produk-produk manufaktur impor dari Meksiko yang umumnya hampir nol persen, karena adanya kesepakatan perdagangan bebas antara negara-negara Perjanjian Perdagangan Bebas Amerika Utara (North American Free Trade Agreement/NAFTA).


Faisal mengatakan kemungkinan pengenaan tarif yang lebih tinggi untuk produk-produk manufaktur dari Indonesia lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan produk-produk dari negara-negara yang memperoleh tarif lebih rendah atau yang sudah dibebaskan, seperti misalnya Meksiko.


“Hanya saja, beberapa produk ekspor Indonesia yang memiliki subtitusi impor di AS seperti minyak sawit, patut diwaspadai peluangnya untuk dikenakan kebijakan restriktif khususnya dalam bentuk non-tarif. Pasalnya, hambatan non-tarif di AS justru banyak dan bervariasi,” ucap dia.


Berdasarkan laporan WTO, saat ini berbagai jenis hambatan non-tarif yang dikenakan AS berjumlah 4780, jauh lebih banyak dibanding Indonesia yang hanya berjumlah 272.


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