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Encouraging TPT Industry for Quality Growth Economy PDF Print E-mail
Written by Maizer   
Monday, 08 January 2018

The performance of the textile and textile products (TPT) industry has proven to be of great merit to the Indonesian economy over the last ten years. This sector managed to reap more than 100 billion dollars of foreign exchange and absorb millions of workers. With this fantastic performance, it is appropriate for the government to spur TPT even faster in order to pursue quality economic growth, especially the economic absorption of job creation.

 

Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) revealed, in 2017 there has been an increase in the number of unemployed in Indonesia by 10 thousand people to 7.04 million people in August 2017 from August 2016 of 7.03 million people. Seen from the open unemployment rate this August fell 0.11 points from 5.61 in August 2016 to 5.50 in the same period in 2017.

 

According to the head of the BPS Kecuk Suhariyanto, "The total labor force that reaches 3 million people per year, so the composition of workers and unemployment will continue to rise as the population," he said.

 

If we look at the educational profile resolved by the population aged 15 years and over, the 2017 BPS data shows there are a total of 42.16 percent of the population who most high finish primary school, 21.84 percent of the population graduate from junior high school. From population literacy data, up to now there are still 9.25 percent of the illiterate population in the productive age range 10 - 44 years.

 

With the above tragic facts, the dislike of governments should seek the right industry profile to reduce the number of unemployed by the characteristics; a. Can absorb labor massively. b. Appropriate conditions of the structure of the majority of the population who are poorly educated and illiterate.

 

According to the author, the industry that can answer the challenges above one of them is TPT. TPT has great potential to grow and develop in the future. The largest capital of TPT today is that the industry is labor-intensive, using medium to low technology, has been integrated, export-oriented and involves micro to large enterprises.

    

Do not assume TPT is a sunset industry and is only suitable for countries with low labor costs. Evidently, the textile industry in the European Union still exists and the second largest in the world under China. By 2016, the total value of EU's TPT exports is 182 billion US dollars (WTO, Trade Statistical Review 2017). The US is no less competitive, in the same year the total of their TPT exports USD 23 billion (Otexa, 2017).

 

From the data processing of Ministry of Industry in 2016, TPT contribution to national GDP is significant at 1.16 percent. The value of exports reached USD 11.87 billion, ranking 4 (8.22 percent) of Indonesia's total oil and gas exports (144.49 billion US dollars), and grabbed 1.57 percent of the world textile market share.

 

This achievement puts TPT into the national industry elite group which recorded the export value of 10 billion US dollars and above. There are only five industries in this elite group; palm oil (18.1 billion US dollars), mining (18.1 billion US dollars), oil and gas (13.1 billion US dollars), TPT and last chemicals and chemical goods (10.2 billion US dollars).

 

In particular, TPT has been in existence and survived in this elite since 2007, when the value of exports penetrate the number 10.06 billion US dollars. This shows that the value of textile exports is relatively stable in the case of the ups and downs of the global economy, compared to natural resource-based commodities such as palm oil, mining and oil and gas. With the value of imports far from exports, TPT's trade surplus ranked 3rd of 4.73 billion US dollars, under vegetable oil and mining.

 

The conclusion in terms of trade value TPT performance is very impressive. Characterized by stable export value despite stagnant tendency over the past decade, besides contributing big surplus to our trade balance

 

Memacu Industri TPT untuk Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Berkualitas

 

Kinerja industri tekstil dan produk tekstil (TPT) telah terbukti berjasa besar untuk perekonomian Indonesia, selama kurun sepuluh tahun terakhir. Sektor ini berhasil meraup lebih dari 100 miliar dolar AS devisa dan menyerap jutaan tenaga kerja. Dengan kinerja fantastis ini, sudah sepatutnya pemerintah memacu TPT lebih kencang lagi dalam rangka mengejar pertumbuhan ekonomi berkualitas, terutama daya serap perkonomian terhadap penciptaan lapangan kerja.

   

Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) mengungkapkan, pada 2017 telah terjadi kenaikan jumlah pengangguran di Indonesia sebesar 10 ribu orang menjadi 7,04 juta orang pada Agustus 2017 dari Agustus 2016 sebesar 7,03 juta orang. Dilihat dari tingkat pengangguran terbuka pada Agustus ini turun 0,11 poin dari 5,61 di Agustus 2016 menjadi 5,50 di periode yang sama tahun 2017.

 

Menurut Kepala BPS Kecuk Suhariyanto, “Jumlah angkatan kerja yang masuk mencapai 3 juta orang per tahun, jadi komposisi pekerja dan penganggurannya akan terus naik seiring jumlah penduduk,” ujarnya.

 

Jika kita menilik profil pendidikan yang ditamatkan penduduk usia 15 tahun keatas, data BPS tahun 2017 menunjukan ada total 42,16 persen penduduk yang paling tinggi menamatkan SD, seterusnya 21,84 persen penduduk menamatkan SMP. Dari data literasi penduduk, sampai sekarang masih ada 9,25 persen penduduk buta huruf di rentang usia produktif 10 - 44 tahun. 

 

Dengan fakta yang mengenaskan diatas, suka tidak suka pemerintah harus mencari profil industri yang tepat untuk mengurangi jumlah pengangguran dengan karakteristik; a. Bisa menyerap tenaga kerja secara masif. b. Sesuai kondisi struktur mayoritas penduduk yang berpendidikan rendah dan buta huruf.   

 

Menurut penulis, industri yang bisa menjawab tantangan diatas salah satunya adalah TPT. TPT memiliki potensi yang besar untuk tumbuh dan berkembang pada masa depan. Modal terbesar TPT saat ini adalah industri ini sifatnya padat karya, menggunakan teknologi sedang ke rendah, telah terintegrasi, berorientasi ekspor dan melibatkan usaha mikro hingga besar.

   

Jangan anggap TPT adalah industri sunset dan hanya cocok untuk negara dengan upah buruh murah. Terbukti, industri TPT di Uni Eropa masih eksis dan nomor dua terbesar di dunia di bawah Cina. Tahun 2016, total nilai ekpor TPT negara-negara Uni Eropa adalah 182 miliar dolar AS (WTO, Trade Statistical Review 2017). Negara AS pun tidak kalah saing, pada tahun yang sama total ekpor TPT mereka USD 23 miliar (Otexa, 2017).

 

Dari olahan data Kemenperin tahun 2016, kontribusi TPT terhadap PDB nasional cukup signifikan yaitu sebesar 1,16 persen. Nilai ekspor mencapai USD 11,87 miliar, menduduki peringkat 4 (8,22 persen) dari total ekspor migas dan non-migas Indonesia (144,49 miliar dolar AS), dan meraih 1,57 persen pangsa pasar TPT dunia.

 

Capaian ini menempatkan TPT masuk dalam kelompok elit industri nasional yang membukukan nilai ekspor 10 miliar dolar AS ke atas. Hanya ada lima industri dalam kelompok elit ini yaitu; minyak sawit (18,1 miliar dolar AS), pertambangan (18,1 miliar dolar AS), migas (13,1 miliar dolar AS), TPT dan terakhir bahan kimia dan barang dari bahan kimia (10,2 miliar dolar AS).

 

Istimewanya TPT sudah berada dan bertahan di kelompok elit ini sejak tahun 2007, saat itu nilai ekspor menembus angka 10,06 miliar dolar AS. Ini menunjukan nilai ekspor TPT relatif stabil dalam situasi naik-turunnya perekonomian global, dibandingkan dengan komoditi berbasiskan sumber daya alam seperti minyak sawit, pertambangan dan migas. Dengan nilai impor yang jauh dari ekspor, surplus perdangan TPT menduduki peringkat 3 sebesar 4,73 miliar dolar AS, di bawah minyak nabati dan pertambangan.

 

Kesimpulannya dari segi nilai perdagangan kinerja TPT sangat impresif. Ditandai dengan nilai ekspor yang stabil walaupun cendrung stagnan selama satu dekade terakhir, selain itu ikut menyumbangkan surplus yang besar bagi neraca perdagangan kita.

 
		
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