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Textile Exports Up 4.4% to Reach US $ 12.4 Billion PDF Print E-mail
Written by Maizer   
Thursday, 11 January 2018

After falling for two consecutive years, national textile and textile product exports rose in 2017, worth US $ 12.4 billion, up 4.4 percent from 2016 at US $ 11.87 billion. The amount exceeded the target of the Indonesian Textile Association (API) of US $ 11.87 billion and the Ministry of Industry (Kemenperin) US $ 12.09 billion.

 

 

The increase was supported by increased demand from ASEAN, Japan, China, and the United States (US). This can not be separated from improving the quality of national textile products.

 

Along with that, Kemperin predicts textile exports will continue to increase until 2019. This year, textile exports targeted to reach US $ 13.5 billion, then rose again to US $ 15 billion a year later.

 

As one of the labor-intensive industries subsector, the absorption of TPT industry workers is also targeted to increase to 2.95 million people in 2018 from 2017 of 2.73 million people. Furthermore, in 2019, the number of labor is projected to reach 3.11 million people.

 

Last year, the textile industry entered the top four major manufacturing sub-sectors. Out of a total of 17 million manufacturing people, the textile industry is ranked third, below the 3.3 million people processing and processed foods (mamin) and automotive 3 million people. Being in the fourth position is the furniture industry made from wood and rattan national as many as 2.5 million people.

 

On the other hand, APIs are more conservative in setting export targets. This year, TPT exports are projected to be stagnant. However, exports may jump twice, if Indonesia establishes a free trade agreement (FTA) with the European Union, one of the main export markets. Currently, national textile exports to the EU are subject to import tariffs (BM) of 11-17%, while rivals Indonesia, Vietnam, get 0% tariffs starting this year, because they have FTAs ​​with the EU. Every year, the average export of Vietnamese TPT penetrates US $ 20 billion.

 

The government is speeding up the FTA discussions with the EU, after the end of last year's successful completion of the FTA with Chile. The FTA discussion with Australia is also the focus of the government.

 

API Chairman Ade Sudrajat stated that for textile exports to increase, it urged the government to accelerate discussion of FTA with EU. API hopes this year all free trade negotiations can be completed. If the FTA has been signed, the value of TPT exports could double.

 

 

In his view, the textile industry is a leading industry, because it absorbs a lot of manpower and investment. That is why, the textile industry should be a government priority and should not be wasted. Based on data from the Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM), TPT investment during January-September 2017 reached Rp 10 trillion.

 

 

Challenge

 

Despite the impressive 2017 performance, he believes TPT industry will face challenges in the export market, especially in the EU in 2018. Because, Vietnam has received a tariff preference of 0%, so that Indonesian products can not compete because it is still charged 11-17%.

 

Therefore, he predicts, if there is no innovation and improvement of competitiveness, national textile exports to the EU could fall by 2-3%. Moreover, the cost of production of textile industry in the country is still higher than Vietnam.

 

"The cost of labor is the same as Vietnam, but Vietnam's electricity tariff is much cheaper, and other costs are cheaper," said Ade.

 

 

The textile industry, according to him, will inevitably have to compete with Vietnam in the EU market, as it remains one of the largest markets. At the same time, business actors should also expand exports to non-traditional markets while spurring exports to old markets like the US, Japan and China. That way, the potential value lost due to declining exports to the EU can be overcome.

 

President Director of PT Sri Rejeki Isman Tbk (Sritex), the largest national textile company, Iwan Setiawan Lukminto said the company aims to expand market share in China and deepen penetration in EU markets. He considered, reaching the Chinese market is a formidable challenge, because China is a producer country. In addition, 30% of the world's textile market is taken by China, while Indonesia is only 2%.

 

"As a producer country, we must be able to compete in there. In China actually we do not have to take the market much, a little is enough because the population is very much, "he said

 

 

 

Ekspor Tekstil Naik 4,4% Capai US$ 12,4 Miliar

 

 

Setelah terpuruk selama dua tahun beruntun, ekspor tekstil dan produk tekstil (TPT) nasional bangkit pada 2017, dengan nilai US$ 12,4 miliar, naik 4,4% dari 2016 sebesar US$ 11,87 miliar. Jumlah itu melampaui target Asosiasi Pertekstilan Indonesia (API) sebesar US$ 11,87 miliar dan Kementerian Perindustrian (Kemenperin) US$ 12,09 miliar.

 

Kenaikan itu ditopang oleh peningkatan permintaan dari ASEAN, Jepang, Tiongkok, dan Amerika Serikat (AS). Hal ini tak lepas dari peningkatan kualitas produk TPT nasional.

 

Seiring dengan itu, Kemperin memprediksi ekspor TPT terus meningkat hingga 2019. Tahun ini, ekspor TPT ditargetkan mencapai US$ 13,5 miliar, lalu naik lagi menjadi US$ 15 miliar setahun berikutnya.

 

Sebagai salah satu subsektor industri padat karya, serapan tenaga kerja industri TPT juga ditargetkan naik menjadi 2,95 juta orang pada 2018 dari 2017 sebanyak 2,73 juta orang. Selanjutnya, pada 2019, jumlah tenaga kerja diproyeksikan mencapai 3,11 juta orang.

 

Tahun lalu, industri TPT masuk empat besar subsektor manufaktur penyerap tenaga kerja terbesar. Dari total tenaga kerja manufaktur sebanyak 17 juta orang, industri TPT berada di peringkat tiga, di bawah industri makanan dan minuman (mamin) olahan sebanyak 3,3 juta orang dan otomotif 3 juta orang. Berada di posisi empat adalah industri furnitur berbahan baku kayu dan rotan nasional sebanyak 2,5 juta orang.

 

Di sisi lain, API lebih konservatif dalam mematok target ekspor. Tahun ini, ekspor TPT diproyeksikan stagnan. Namun, ekspor bisa melonjak hingga dua kali lipat, jika Indonesia menjalin perdagangan bebas (free trade agreement/FTA) dengan Uni Eropa, salah satu pasar ekspor utama. Saat ini, ekspor TPT nasional ke UE dikenakan tarif bea masuk (BM) 11-17%, sedangkan rival Indonesia, Vietnam, mendapatkan tarif 0% mulai tahun ini, karena memiliki FTA dengan UE. Setiap tahun, rata-rata ekspor TPT Vietnam menembus US$ 20 miliar.

 

Pemerintah tengah mengebut pembahasan FTA dengan UE, setelah akhir tahun lalu sukses merampungkan FTA dengan Chile. Pembahasan FTA dengan Australia juga menjadi fokus pemerintah.

 

Ketua Umum API Ade Sudrajat menyatakan, agar ekspor tekstil meningkat, pihaknya mendesak pemerintah mempercepat pembahasan FTA dengan UE. API berharap tahun ini semua perundingan perdagangan bebas bisa rampung. Jika FTA sudah diteken, nilai ekspor TPT bisa meningkat dua kali lipat.


Dalam pandangan dia, industri TPT termasuk industri unggulan, karena menyerap banyak tenaga kerja dan investasi. Itu sebabnya, industri TPT harus menjadi prioritas pemerintah dan tidak boleh disia-siakan. Berdasarkan data Badan Koordinasi Penanaman Modal (BKPM), investasi TPT sepanjang Januari-September 2017 mencapai Rp 10 triliun.

 

 

Tantangan

 

Meski kinerja 2017 impresif, dia menilai, industri TPT bakal menghadapi tantangan di pasar ekspor, terutama di UE pada 2018. Sebab, Vietnam sudah mendapatkan preferensi tarif 0%, sehingga produk Indonesia bisa kalah bersaing karena masih dikenakan tarif 11-17%.

 

Oleh sebab itu, dia memprediksi, jika tidak ada inovasi dan perbaikan daya saing, ekspor TPT nasional ke UE bisa turun 2-3%. Apalagi, biaya produksi industri TPT dalam negeri masih lebih tinggi dibandingkan Vietnam.

 

"Biaya tenaga kerja memang sama dengan Vietnam, tapi tarif listrik Vietnam jauh lebih murah. Biaya-biaya lainnya juga lebih murah. Otomatis pembeli di Uni Eropa akan lebih senang membeli barang dari Vietnam," ujar Ade.

 


Industri TPT, menurut dia, mau tidak mau harus bersaing dengan Vietnam di pasar EU, karena tetap merupakan salah satu pasar terbesar. Pada saat yang sama, pelaku usaha juga harus memperluas ekspor ke pasar nontradisional sekaligus memacu ekspor ke pasar lama seperti AS, Jepang, dan Tiongkok. Dengan begitu, potensi nilai yang hilang akibat turunnya ekspor ke UE bisa teratasi.

 

Presiden Direktur PT Sri Rejeki Isman Tbk (Sritex), perusahaan tekstil terbesar nasional, Iwan Setiawan Lukminto menyatakan, perseroan menargetkan bisa memperluas pangsa pasar di Tiongkok dan memperdalam penetrasi di pasar-pasar Uni Eropa. Dia menilai, menjangkau pasar Tiongkok merupakan tantangan berat, karena Tiongkok merupakan negara produsen. Selain itu, 30% dari pasar tekstil dunia diambil oleh Tiongkok, sedangkan Indonesia baru 2%.

 

“Sebagai negara produsen, kami harus bisa bersaing masuk sana. Di Tiongkok sebenarnya kami tidak usah ambil pasar banyak-banyak, sedikit saja sudah cukup karena penduduknya sangat banyak,” ujar dia

 

 
		
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